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Credit/citations for data files distributed with Geant4


We acknowledge the use of external data libraries in compiling the Geant4 data libraries.
Information on these sources is currently provided also in our publications, including NIM A 506 (2003), 250.

Photon Evaporation

Photon evaporation data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Radioactive Decay

The radioactive decay data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory.

G4NDL (with or without thermal neutrons)

G4NDL data comes largely from the ENDF/B-VI library which is developed and maintained by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). The original data files may be accessed at the National Nuclear Data Center web site.

G4SAID (evaluated cross sections from SAID database)

Data evaluated from the SAID database for proton, neutron, pion inelastic, elastic, and charge exchange cross sections of nucleons below 3 GeV. Main reference:

  • Arndt et al., Evaluated Nucleon Cross Section Data Directory, Phys Rev C76: 025209, 2007.

G4NEUTRONXS (evaluated neutron cross sections)

Evaluated data are produced using the G4NDL data set via averaging procedure for neutron energies E<10 MeV. For energies E>20 MeV the cross-sections are computed by Geant4 cross-section classes G4BGGNucleonInelasticXS and G4BGGNucleonElasticXS. For the interval E=10-20 MeV a linear interpolation is used.

G4ABLA (nuclear shell effects, obsolete in 9.6)

The data are based on ABLA V3 data files:

  • flalpha.dat - alpha ground state deformation
  • frldm.dat - ground state shell corr. frldm for a spherical g.s.
  • vgsld.dat - difference between deformed g.s. and ldm value
  • pace2.dat - default mass for A, Z nucleus
The data are meant to be used for the INCL/ABLA hadronic models (located in Geant4 in processes/hadronic/models/incl).

G4EMLOW (Low energy electromagnetic)

Livermore models data (except for the photoelectric_angular module) are derived from the Livermore data libraries:

  • EPDL97 - Evaluated Photon Data Library
  • EEDL - Evaluated Electron Data Library
  • EADL - Evaluated Atom Data Library
Data related to the Geant4-DNA extension have been collected from published material and/or by courtesy of their author. They are described in the following publications: The data have been reformatted for usage in Geant4 and some files contain values resulting from fitting of the original data.
Data related to PIXE simulation are collected from the available literature.

G4PII (Precise Impact Ionisation)

Cross section data for impact ionisation.
References and credit for the physics sources and software used to produce the data set are:

  • M. G. Pia, G. Weidenspointner, M. Augelli, L. Quintieri, P. Saracco, M. Sudhakar, A. Zoglauer, PIXE simulation with Geant4, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3614-3649, Dec. 2009.
  • W. Brandt and G. Lapicki, Energy-loss effect in inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 23, 1717, 1981.
  • G. Lapicki, The status of theoretical K-shell ionization cross sections by protons, X-Ray Spectrom., vol. 34, pp. 269-278, 2005.
  • G. Lapicki, Scaling of analytical cross sections for K-shell ionization by non-relativistic protons to cross sections by protons at relativistic velocities, J. Phys. B, vol. 41, pp. 115201, 2008.
  • Z. Liu and S. J. Cipolla, ISICS: A program for calculating K-, L-, and M-shell cross sections from ECPSSR theory using a personal computer, Comput. Phys. Comm., vol. 97, pp. 315\u2013330, 1996.
  • S. J. Cipolla, An improved version of ISICS: a program for calculating K, L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory using a personal computer, Comp. Phys. Comm., vol. 176, pp. 157-159, 2007.
  • S. J. Cipolla, The united atom approximation option in the ISICS program to calculate K, L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 261, pp. 142-144, 2007.
  • S. Cipolla, ISICS, 2008 version. Private communication Creighton Univ., Omaha NE 68178.
  • H. Paul and J. Sacher, Fitted empirical reference cross sections for K-shell ionization by protons, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables, vol. 42, pp. 105-156, 1989.
  • A. Kahoul, M. Nekkab, and B. Deghfel, Empirical K-shell ionization cross-sections of elements from 4Be to 92U by proton impact, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 266, pp. 4969-4975, 2008.
  • H. Paul and O. Bolik, Fitted Empirical Reference Cross Sections for K-Shell Ionization by Alpha Particles, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables, vol. 54, pp. 75-131, 1993.
  • Y. Miyagawa et al., Analytical Formulas for Ionization Cross Sections and Coster-Kronig Corrected Fluorescence Yields of the Ll, L2, and L3 Subshells, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 30, pp. 115-122, 1988.
  • I. Orlic et al., Semi-empirical Formulas for Calculation of L Subshell Ionization Cross Sections, Int. J. PIXE, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 217-230, 1994.
  • C. H. Sow et al., New parameters for the calculation of L subshell ionization cross sections, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 75, pp. 58-62, 1993.

Real Surface (measured optical surface reflectance LUT)

The data for measured optical surface reflectance look-up tables are described in:

G4ENSDFSTATE (nuclide state properties database)

Data set of nuclides state properties derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File



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Last updated: 06 Dec 2013