Credit/citations for data files distributed with Geant4
We acknowledge the use of external data libraries in compiling the
Geant4 data libraries.
Information on these sources is currently provided also in our
publications, including NIM A 506 (2003), 250.
Photon evaporation data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data
File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the
National Nuclear Data Center,
Brookhaven National Laboratory.
The radioactive decay data comes from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure
Data File (ENSDF) which is maintained by the
National Nuclear Data Center,
Brookhaven National Laboratory.
G4NDL (with or without thermal neutrons)
G4NDL data comes largely from the ENDF/B-VI library which is developed
and maintained by the
Cross Section Evaluation Working Group
(CSEWG). The original data files may be accessed at the
National Nuclear Data Center web site.
Database translated from the TENDL-2014 incident proton data library (written
in ENDF-6 format).
The TENDL-2014 incident proton data library contains about 2600 isotopes.
Only those isotopes present in the G4NDL neutron data library have been
included in the G4TENDL database. The complete TENDL-2014 library will be
available at the IAEA web page .
The range of incident particle energies in TENDL-2014 is from 1 to 200 MeV.
- "TENDL-2014: TALYS-based evaluated nuclear data library", A.J. Koning,
D. Rochman, S. van der Marck, J. Kopecky, J. Ch. Sublet, S. Pomp,
H. Sjostrand, R. Forrest, E. Bauge, H. Henriksson, O. Cabellos,
S. Goriely J. Leppanen, H. Leeb, A. Plompen and R. Mills,
- A.J. Koning and D. Rochman, "Modern Nuclear Data Evaluation With The TALYS
Code System", Nuclear Data Sheets 113 (2012) 2841.
- M.B. Chadwick et al., "ENDF/B-VII.0: Next generation evaluated nuclear
data library for nuclear science and technology", Nucl. Data Sheets
G4SAID (evaluated cross sections from SAID database)
Data evaluated from the SAID database for proton, neutron, pion inelastic,
elastic, and charge exchange cross sections of nucleons below 3 GeV.
- Arndt et al., Evaluated Nucleon Cross Section Data Directory,
Phys Rev C76: 025209, 2007.
G4NEUTRONXS (evaluated neutron cross sections)
Evaluated data are produced using the G4NDL data set via averaging
procedure for neutron energies E<10 MeV.
For energies E>20 MeV the cross-sections are computed by Geant4
cross-section classes G4BGGNucleonInelasticXS and
For the interval E=10-20 MeV a linear interpolation is used.
G4ABLA (nuclear shell effects, obsolete in 9.6)
The data are based on ABLA V3 data files:
The data are meant to be used for the INCL/ABLA hadronic models
(located in Geant4 in processes/hadronic/models/incl).
- flalpha.dat - alpha ground state deformation
- frldm.dat - ground state shell corr. frldm for a spherical g.s.
- vgsld.dat - difference between deformed g.s. and ldm value
- pace2.dat - default mass for A, Z nucleus
G4EMLOW (Low energy electromagnetic)
Livermore models data (except for the photoelectric_angular module)
are derived from the Livermore data
Data related to the Geant4-DNA extension have been collected from published
material and/or by courtesy of their author. They are described in the
The data have been reformatted for usage in Geant4 and some files
contain values resulting from fitting of the original data.
- EPDL97 - Evaluated Photon Data Library
- EEDL - Evaluated Electron Data Library
- EADL - Evaluated Atom Data Library
Data related to PIXE simulation are collected from the available literature.
G4PII (Precise Impact Ionisation)
Cross section data for impact ionisation.
References and credit for the physics sources and software used to produce
the data set are:
- M. G. Pia, G. Weidenspointner, M. Augelli, L. Quintieri, P. Saracco,
M. Sudhakar, A. Zoglauer, PIXE simulation with Geant4,
IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 3614-3649, Dec. 2009.
- W. Brandt and G. Lapicki, Energy-loss effect in inner-shell Coulomb
ionization by heavy charged particles, Phys. Rev. A, vol. 23, 1717, 1981.
- G. Lapicki, The status of theoretical K-shell ionization cross sections
by protons, X-Ray Spectrom., vol. 34, pp. 269-278, 2005.
- G. Lapicki, Scaling of analytical cross sections for K-shell ionization
by non-relativistic protons to cross sections by protons at relativistic
velocities, J. Phys. B, vol. 41, pp. 115201, 2008.
- Z. Liu and S. J. Cipolla, ISICS: A program for calculating K-, L-,
and M-shell cross sections from ECPSSR theory using a personal computer,
Comput. Phys. Comm., vol. 97, pp. 315\u2013330, 1996.
- S. J. Cipolla, An improved version of ISICS: a program for calculating K,
L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory using a personal
computer, Comp. Phys. Comm., vol. 176, pp. 157-159, 2007.
- S. J. Cipolla, The united atom approximation option in the ISICS program
to calculate K, L, and M-shell cross sections from PWBA and ECPSSR theory,
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 261, pp. 142-144, 2007.
- S. Cipolla, ISICS, 2008 version. Private communication Creighton Univ.,
Omaha NE 68178.
- H. Paul and J. Sacher, Fitted empirical reference cross sections for
K-shell ionization by protons, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables,
vol. 42, pp. 105-156, 1989.
- A. Kahoul, M. Nekkab, and B. Deghfel, Empirical K-shell ionization
cross-sections of elements from 4Be to 92U by proton impact,
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 266, pp. 4969-4975, 2008.
- H. Paul and O. Bolik, Fitted Empirical Reference Cross Sections for
K-Shell Ionization by Alpha Particles, Atom. Data Nucl. Data Tables,
vol. 54, pp. 75-131, 1993.
- Y. Miyagawa et al., Analytical Formulas for Ionization Cross Sections
and Coster-Kronig Corrected Fluorescence Yields of the Ll, L2, and L3
Subshells, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 30, pp. 115-122, 1988.
- I. Orlic et al., Semi-empirical Formulas for Calculation of L Subshell
Ionization Cross Sections, Int. J. PIXE, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 217-230, 1994.
- C. H. Sow et al., New parameters for the calculation of L subshell
ionization cross sections, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B, vol. 75, pp. 58-62, 1993.
Real Surface (measured optical surface reflectance LUT)
The data for measured optical surface reflectance look-up tables are
G4ENSDFSTATE (nuclide state properties database)
Data set of nuclides state properties derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File